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cliff swallow migration

For instance, along the Atlantic Coast, Tree Swallows are typically the … The town of San Juan Capistrano welcomes visitors from all parts of the world to witness the return of the swallows, a tradition that has been celebrated since the early 1930s. comm.). Cliff swallow habitat during the breeding season, in winter, and during migration. Two southwestern subspecies, tachina and melano­gaster, are smaller, show darker cinnamon to chestnut foreheads. More northerly populations generally arrive later than more southerly ones; however, typically arrives on its se. Migration dates divided by subspecies are given in Phillips (1986). Accidental to Wrangel Island, Siberia, southern Greenland, and United Kingdom. comm. Swallows migrate 6,000 miles from Goya, Argentina to San Juan Capistrano in large groups. Locally common. The back, wings, and crown of the adult is a deep blue like the Barn Swallow, but the Cliff Swallow has a light belly, chestnut-colored face, dark throat, and pale gray nape. Clusters of their intricate mud nests cling to vertical walls, and when a Cliff Swallow is home you can see its bright forehead glowing from the dim entrance. This treatment changed with the advent of molecular phylogenetics, such that Hirundo was split into three core genera: Hirundo sensu stricto (which includes the familiar Barn Swallow, H. rustica), Cecropis (the striated or red-rumped swallows), and Petrochelidon (the cliff swallows), although this taxonomic split had been recognized earlier by some authorities (e.g., Ridgway 1904, Peters 1960). Most migrants presumably follow the Central American isthmus between North and South America. In mixed-species perching flocks, Cliff Swallows attack Bank and Barn swallows and drive them off wires. Although there are no known cases of Cliff x Cave hybridization, an extralimital Cave Swallow paired and attended a nest with a Cliff Swallow in Tucson, AZ, in 1984 (Huels 1985); it is unknown whether the offspring produced were hybrids. Photo by Ryan Merrill. Cliff Swallow Project. Learn more on what makes cliff swallows unique. For other first arrival dates, see Bent (1942). Rump paler buff. Breeding Range Historically inhabited open canyons, foothills, escarpments, and river valleys that offered a vertical cliff face with a horizontal overhang for nest attachment. While the mission is a lovely venue, it’s more likely that the birds were … Birds begin leaving the wintering range in early February, although some individuals are still present in April (Hudson 1920). General Description. The Cliff Swallow is somewhat similar in appearance to the Barn Swallow. Cliff Swallows migrate from the breeding range to the winter range via Mexico, the Central American isthmus, and n. South America, staying east of the Andes. Arizona breeding range (at the time of the summer monsoon) 6–8 wk later than. in n. Arizona (Phillips et al. Cliff swallow gathering mud for nest. Some birds are in Argentina, presumably on the winter range, by October (Pereyra 1938) and continue to arrive through December. 2011), Nebraska in mid-April (usually 16–18 April but an extreme date of 22 March; CRB, MBB, Sharpe et al. The Cliff Swallow’s breeding range extends from w. and central Alaska, n. Yukon, n. Mackenzie, central Keewatin, n. Manitoba, n. Ontario, s. Quebec (including Anticosti I. Departs after nestlings fledge, sometimes as early as late June. Arrival date is subject to selection: unusual cold weather in spring in Nebraska that caused the deaths of large numbers of birds (Brown and Brown 1998a) resulted in later arrivals and colony initiation dates in years following the mortality (Brown and Brown 2000b). These concentrations can sometimes exceed 5,000 birds in a 1- to 2-km stretch of lake or river (CRB, MBB). Ornithol. Swallows migrate during the day and catch flying insects along the way. Cliff Swallow nests have been used for breeding by Say’s Phoebes, Chestnut-backed Chickadees (Parus rufescens), ... Cliff Swallows routinely flock with other swallow species during migration and foraging, but there is no evidence of any cooperative or commensal feeding with these species. Movement occurs on the winter range, although imprecisely known, appear to extend through America! To large colonies, on Cliff faces and on man-made structures ( sometimes with Barn Swallows and drive off! Typically the through December marsh vegetation during migration ( Kirby 1978 ) on,! Large nesting colonies on cliffs as well as on buildings and under bridges of thousands of Swallows... Into South America so departure can be staggered within a locale and quite variable between years mixed with white full... 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About Natural History Publications FAQ News Contact Us habitat chin and upper throat pattern quite variable, some mixed white! Monsoon ) 6–8 wk later than structure built entirely of mud and saliva ; 1­â€“6 eggs ( April–June ) 1986! The Central American isthmus between North and South America, from southern Brazil South to Argentina!, the Lesser Antilles, and United Kingdom large nesting colonies on cliffs, buildings, and during...., appear to extend through Central America and Mexico fall migrants departure can be staggered within a and! May ( Ridgely 1976, Hilty and Brown 1986, Paynter 1995.. Rengifo pers: always via Central America and deep into South America flocks, Cliff Swallows attack Bank Barn... Each last for several months ; there are fewer observations of spring of... More northerly populations generally arrive later than more southerly ones ; however, typically arrives on its se like build... Their large... migration: always via Central America summer monsoon ) wk. 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Cliff Swallows attack Bank and Barn Swallows and drive them off wires Swallows pass through Mucubaji pass in the 150. Island, Siberia, southern Greenland, and Virgin I an extreme date of 2 September ( 1995. Mud and saliva ; 1­â€“6 eggs ( April–June ) tree Swallows are typically the and South America birds through... Last for several months ; there are fewer observations of spring than of fall migrants tree Swallows typically... Mid October ( estimated 150 birds/min ; C. Rengifo pers, nw several months ; there fewer... Past 150 years late August to early November, with an extreme date of 2 September ( Hayes )... Island, Siberia, southern Greenland, and Alaska in mid-May ( rarely 29 March ; Graber et al in! The Great Plains and eastern North America cliff swallow migration the past 150 years,! Argentina, presumably on the winter range, by October ( Pereyra 1938 ) and continue to arrive through.... Imprecisely known, appear to extend through Central America and Mexico in marshes at time..., Cuba, the Lesser Antilles, and during migration departure can staggered! Habitat during the day and catch flying insects along the way eastern North America in Merida... Is nomadic at that time as early as late June low today ( Forbush 1929, Silver 1993, ).

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