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types of ethical ideologies

1986 ‘Ethical decision making in organizations: A person situation interactionist model,’ Academy of Management Review, 11, 601–617Trevino, L.K. There are two sides to this theory. The theory concentrates on the need to satisfy the needs of the entire society rather than the needs of an individual or an alienated … Respondents’ anonymity waspreserved but the questionnaire included an additional section, which sought demographic andorganizational information (Appendix 2). Their data indicated a shift in thework values of these managers. It constituted 75.4 per cent Hindus, 20 percent Sikhs, while ‘others’ were managers who did not report their religion.Table 1: ReligionReligion Frequency Per centHindu 132 75.4Sikh 35 20.0Other 8 4.5Total 175 100.0The highest proportion of the managers in the sample (44 per cent) were in the age group 36–45 years, with 32 per cent in the age group 25–35 years and 21 per cent in the age group 46–55 years. You will probably disagreewith some items and agree with others. The large sector defined as organizations employing morethan 500 employees at the time. Then indicate the extent to which you agree or disagreeby placing in front of the statement the number corresponding to your feelings, where:1= completely disagree 6= slightly agree2= largely disagree 7= moderately agree3= moderately disagree 8= largely agree4= slightly disagree 9= completely agree5= neither agree nor disagree1. and Pearson, C.A.L. 1985 ‘Value Erosion among Indian Managers’, Business India, Jan, 14–27Midgley, M. 1991 The Origin of Ethics. Academy of Management Journal, 27(1), 166– 175Greenberg, J. The significance of the situationalfactors or contextual factors in ethical decision making and ethical behaviour imply thatethical behaviour is not necessarily the outcome of individual goodness, of moral beliefs andvalues one espouses. Societies that don’t have written laws like our Constitution make this theory less believable, according to some philosophers. and Vitell, S.J. You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes! What is ethical varies from one situation and society to another13. The literature reviewand findings of the study point towards need for empirical research in the area as rightlyindicated by Chakraborty (1997).¹¹ One point in particular to note is that there appears to be a problem with the idealism sub-scale in the EPQ inrelation with this project, which may have implications for future research. Malhotra (1985) also reported ‘value erosion’among Indian managers. New Delhi: All India Management AssociationNederhof, A.J. When asked to describe our culture we arelikely to give an answer based on ideals rather than actuality. Research interests are in the areaof business ethics, organisational behaviour, human resource management and employmentrelations. The InstrumentThe Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ) (Appendix 1) was developed by Forsyth to measureethical ideologies and moral philosophies held by individuals. What Are the Four Major Ethical Theories? ), The Secret Science of Solving Crossword Puzzles, Racist Phrases to Remove From Your Mental Lexicon. The lack of empirical research in the area of business ethics in India implies a possibledifference between the perceived and real situation. There are four major ethical theories: deontology (or duty), utilitarianism, rights, and virtue. Different branches of the study of ethics look at where our views of morality come from and how they shape our everyday lives. It was also foundthat removing item 7, which is, “Deciding whether or not to perform an act by balancing the positiveconsequences of the act against the negative consequences of the act is immoral”, from the idealism scaleincreased the value for the alpha coefficient to .70. Though Forsyth (1978) has presented evidence of theinfluence of ethical ideologies adopted by people on their moral judgments, another study byForsyth and Berger indicated that ethical ideology does not predict ethical behaviour (Forsyth,1980:182). The first one, consequential ethics, states that outcomes determine ethical decisions. business ethically. 1980 ‘A Taxonomy of Ethical Ideologies’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(1), 175–184 12, Forsyth, D.R. A survey of future executives’, Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 231–248Kolnai, A. For example, we may make a decision based on following the law or based on our loyalty toward friends or family members.A. Belief Systems Atheism and Agnosticism Logic Ethics Key Figures in Atheism Evolution Atheism Myths and Misconceptions By. About 79 per cent of the managers were found to be situationists and 20 per cent were found to be absolutists. Brunger F(1). According to this theory, what we believe our duties are will drive how we act in different situations. Advertisement. Ideals are not always easily realized in everyday life and there is often a gap betweenwhat ought to be and what is. Austin Cline . London: Athlone Press, University of LondonLane, M.S., Schaupp, D. and Parsons, B. The theory of deontology falls under this type of ethics because people make decisions based on their duty to those around them. Ethical Hacking? and Forsyth, D.R. Removing item 7 from the idealism scale increased alpha coefficient to .704 and ifboth item 7 and item 9 were removed from the idealism scale the alpha coefficient increasedto .713. They statethat although internal factors like individual moral development are important, ethical conductdepends, to a large extent on external factors such as the expectations of the authority figures,one’s position in the organizational hierarchy, what the colleagues are doing, the rewardsystem and the roles that an individual is asked to play. It should be kept in mind that personal moral philosophy does not necessarilylead to moral behaviour in accordance. In their review of methodology in 4, business ethics research, Randall and Gibson commented that ‘it was particularly interestingto note the heavy reliance upon samples of marketing managers’ (1990:463). The theory of deontology states that when we have to make ethical decisions, our first thoughts are on our duties and obligations. Ohio: MerrillFord, C.R. Singhapakdi, Vitell and Leelakulthanit (1994) conducted acomparative study of Thai and American marketers. 1988 ‘Pygmalion effect: An issue for business education and ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 223–229Malhotra,A. A positive correlation was found between idealism and education. For the purpose of discussion in this paper, anindividual’s set of values or personal moral philosophy or ideology are their guidingprinciples and ethics are the ways these values and ideologies are applied to decisions. and Stein, J.P. 1992 Sociology- Brief Edition. According to Hunt and Vitell (1986) the individual ethical perception of thesituation is influenced by a sum of cultural, organizational and industrial environment alongwith personal experiences. Since the inception of Certified Ethical Hacker in 2003, the credential has become one of the best options for … 9, The coexistence of incidence of high idealism amongst the managers and theapparently contradictory perception of widespread corruption and unethical business practicescan be explained through the concept of ideal and real culture in sociology. It is never necessary to sacrifice the welfare of others10. Steadyeconomic and industrial growth and the lack of any empirical evidence on the ethical valuesheld by the managers in the region, to the knowledge of the author made the state aninteresting choice for the study.Methodology SamplingA list of large and medium scale manufacturing enterprises was obtained from the Directorateof Factories, Punjab, which listed 536 existing enterprises in year 1999. Whether a lie is judged to be moral or immoral depends upon the circumstances surrounding the action.

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